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UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS LIBRARY AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN
•7^ THE LIBRARY OHHt
yi-JX SEP 11 1933
UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS
The Races of Mankind
An Introduction to Chauncey Keep Memorial Hall
Assistant Curator of Physical Anthropology
Preface by Berthold Laufer
Curator, Department of Anthropology
Introduction by Sir Arthur Keith
Conservator and Professor in the Royal College of Surgeons of England
9 Plates in Photogravure and 1 Plan of the Hall
FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY
The Anthropological Leaflets of Field Museum are designed to
give brief, non-technical accounts of some of the more interesting
beliefs, habits and customs of the races whose life is illustrated
in the Museum's exhibits.
ANTHROPOLOGICAL LEAFLETS ISSUED TO DATE
1. The Chinese Gateway $ .10
2. Philippine Forge Group 10
3. Japanese Collections 20
4. New Guinea Masks 15
5. The Thunder Ceremony of the Pawnee 20
6. The Sacrifice to the Morning Star by the Skidi
7. Purification of the Sacred Bundles, a Ceremony of
the Pawnee 10
8. Annual Ceremony of the Pawnee Medicine Men . .10
9. The Use of Sago in New Guinea 10
10. Use of Human Skulls and Bones in Tibet ... .10
11. The Japanese New Year's Festival, Games and
12. Japanese Costume .20
13. Gods and Heroes of Japan 15
14. Japanese Temples and Houses 15
15. Use of Tobacco among North American Indians . .20
16. Use of Tobacco in Mexico and South America . . .15
17. Use of Tobacco in New Guinea and Neighboring
18. Tobacco and Its Use in Asia 25
19. Introduction of Tobacco into Europe 25
20. The Japanese Sword and Its Decoration 15
21. Ivory in China 60
22. Insect- Musicians and Cricket Champions of China . .40
23. Ostrich Egg-shell Cups of Mesopotamia and the
Ostrich in Ancient and Modern Times ... .30
24. The Indian Tribes of the Chicago Region with
Special Reference to the Illinois and the
25. The Civilization of the Mayas (Second Edition) . .60
26. The Early History of Man 25
27. The Giraffe in History and Art 60
28. The Field Museum - Oxford University Expedition
to Kish, Mesopotamia, 1923-1929 50
29. Tobacco and Its Use in Africa 25
30. The Races of Mankind 25
STEPHEN C. SIMMS, Director
unmmii of mmi
BRONZE GROUP SYMBOLIZING UNITY OF MANKIND
THE LfBRARy OF THE
SEP 11 1933
UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS
Preface by Berthold Laufer 3
Introduction by Sir Arthur Keith 7
Human Biology , 13
Description of Races 17
I. Africa ' 17
II. Europe 21
III. Asia 22
IV. America 31
V. Oceania 33
Plan of Chauncey Keep Memorial Hall (Hall 3) . . 38
List of Sculptures by Malvina Hoffman 39
Field Museum of Natural History
DEPARTMENT OF ANTHROPOLOGY
Leaflet Numbeb SO
Copyright 1933 by Field Museum of Natural History
Plans for a hall to present to the public the biological
problems of mankind were formulated in the Department
of Anthropology under my direction as far back as 1915.
This date is mentioned for no other reason than to em-
phasize the difficulty of such an undertaking and to point
out that in the course of the eighteen years which have
lapsed between conception and completion the plan was
carefully considered, frequently modified and finally
carried out after long and mature deliberation and
thorough study of every detail.
Hall 3, which is devoted to the Races of Mankind,
is located on the north side in the east wing of the build-
ing, and is named Chauncey Keep Memorial Hall in
honor of the late Chauncey Keep, a highly valued member
of the Museum's Board of Trustees from 1915 until his
death in 1929. A legacy of $50,000 left by him to the
Museum has been applied to the hall and its contents.
A generous share in the cost of the bronzes has been
assumed by Mr. Marshall Field. Other contributors are
Mrs. Stanley Field and Mrs. Charles H. Schweppe.
Sir Arthur Keith, who has rendered many valuable
services to Malvina Hoffman in her work and who has
been good enough to write an introduction to this leaflet,
is a leading authority on anthropology and an expert on
the reconstruction of prehistoric man from fragments or
fossil remains. He was professor of comparative anatomy
at the Royal Institution (1917-23) and became conservator
of the Museum and professor at the Royal College of
Surgeons in 1908. He was secretary and later president of
4 Field Museum op Natural History
the Anatomical Society of Great Britain and president
of the Royal Anthropological Institute (1913-17). He
was knighted in 1921, and was designated president of
the British Association in 1927. He is the author of
numerous treatises and many books, as, for instance,
Human Embryology and Morphology (4th ed., 1921);
Antiquity of Man (2 vols., 7th ed., 1929); Engines of the
Human Body (2nd ed., 1925); Nationality and Race
(1919); and Religion of a Darwinist (1925).
Anthropology is a young science, its problems are
complex and manifold, and there is still a wide divergence
of opinion as to methods, conclusions, and results. Many
fundamental subjects have been treated just at the surface,
as, for instance, the question as to what is normal or
abnormal in the human body and mind. The favorite
classification of the human species according to skin color
has not yet passed beyond the stage of common experience.
A solid technique for the study of skin color and its
nomenclature has not yet been developed; in speaking
of white, yellow, black, and red men we follow merely
a popular terminology and take surface impressions for
granted, while as a matter of fact the color variability
of the complexion in individuals is almost infinite and
no one is either strictly white or yellow or black or red. '
Much harm has been done by the general confusion
of the terms race, nationality, language, and culture, all
of which are entirely distinct. The best known school
example illustrating the application of these terms is
presented by our Negroes in America. As a biological
type our Negroes belong to the African or "black" race
and will always remain within this division; even inter-
marriage with whites will not modify their racial charac-
teristics to any marked degree. As to language they have
adopted English in North America and therefore belong
to the English-speaking group of peoples, and Spanish
or Portuguese in Central and South America, while they
have forgotten the Bantu speech of their forefathers. As
BRONZE STATUE OF SHILLUK WARRIOR, EAST AFRICA
WirfflSJiy OF lUdini
to culture they have adapted themselves to their new
environment, have adopted the Christian religion, and
live in the same manner as other Americans, while
African survivals of culture have almost disappeared. We
cannot speak of a Negro nationality in America as the
Negroes do not form a political unit, but live sporadically
scattered in the white communities. It is chiefly social
and legal restriction and segregation that keeps their race
consciousness alive. We can observe every day in our
country that immigrants frorii Europe exchange their
own language for English and that their descendants,
already in the first generation, become oblivious of the
speech of their fathers. The Bulgars who now speak a
Slavic language were in their origin a tribe of the Turkish
stock of peoples. The Manchus, who issued from the
Tungusian stock, dropped their own language after the
conquest of China and evolved into Chinese in speech,
customs, and habits. The majority of Jews no longer
converses in Hebrew, but is thoroughly assimilated to the
speech and environment of the country in which they
reside. Language therefore is an unsafe criterion for the
classification of peoples and, while it is the foundation of
all that constitutes nationality and is a part of our cultural
heritage, a close examination of historical facts is required
to determine the linguistic relationship of a nation.
One of the most misunderstood and misused terms is
the word Aryan. In its origin this word belonged to the
Sanskrit and Iranian languages and designated the Indian
and Iranian stock as a unit before their division and
migration into India and Iran, respectively. When the
linguistic relationship of Sanskrit and Iranian with Greek,
Latin, Slavic, Germanic, and Celtic was discovered, the
term Aryan was sometimes applied by European philolo-
gists to this entire family of languages, but is now fortu-
nately replaced by the term Indo-European. There is,
however, no such thing as an Aryan race, nor are blond
hair, fair skin, and blue eyes characteristic of Indo-
6 Field Museum of Natural History
Europeans. On the contrary, there is no blondness among
the people of India and Iran, while it equally occurs
among Semites, Turks, Finno-Ugrians, and Central-
Asiatics. The most perfect specimen of what is popularly
but wrongly styled "Aryan" I met in an Osman from
Constantinople. A great scholar, Max Miiller of Oxford,
expressed the opinion, "To me an ethnologist who speaks
of Aryan race, Aryan blood, Aryan eyes and hair, is as
great a sinner as a linguist who would speak of a dolicho-
cephalic dictionary or a brachycephahc grammar."
Race means breed and refers to the physical traits
acquired by heredity, in contrast with experience and the
total complex of habits and thoughts acquired from the
group to which we belong; in other words, the social herit-
age called culture. The behavior of a nation is not deter-
mined by its biological origin, but by its cultural traditions.
With the advance of our civilization and the white
man's expansion all over the globe many primitive tribes
are now doomed to extinction and are gradually dying
out. It may be questioned whether any vestiges of the
life and culture of primitive man will have remained on
this earth by the time the following century arrives.
Many a vanishing race will continue to live only in the
statues and busts displayed in this hall.
Anthropology is essentially a science of human under-
standing and conciliation based on profound human
sympathies that extend alike to all races of mankind.
Solely a mind endowed with the gift of such sympathies
was capable of creating the sculptures arrayed in this
hall, which are pervaded by a refined and humane spirit.
If the visitors to the hall will receive the impression that
race prejudice is merely the outcome of ignorance and will
leave it with their sympathy for mankind deepened and
strengthened and with their interest in the study of
mankind stimulated and intensified, our efforts will not
have been futile and will have fulfilled their purpose.
The human family at present is very large and very
complex. It numbers 1,800,000,000 or more; it is scattered
over the face of the whole earth, and is divided into an
exceedingly great number of forms, breeds, and races.
How can such a vast assortment of diverse individuals
be given a true and effective representation in a museimi?
According to established precedent, human skulls, skele-
tons, photographs, charts, casts, and models brought home
from all lands fill the exhibition cases of such a hall in
museums. And such collections no doubt prove of great
value to professional students of anthropology, but
exhibits of this nature are likely to repel rather than to
attract visitors to the study of mankind.
Field Museum has adopted the sensible plan of giving
the races of mankind a plastic representation in the new
hall devoted to this subject. This plan was initiated four
years ago when Malvina Hoffman was commissioned to
proceed to those lands where native races are at their
purest and there register in clay and finish in bronze the
living lineaments of selected types. The sculptor has
made the scheme adopted an undisputed success. Her
representations of humanity are works both of beauty
and of truth.
Those who have followed Malvina Hoffman's career
were convinced at the outset that there would be no risk
of failure. The hands which have fixed in living clay the
motions and grace of the dancing Pavlova could not fail
to catch the essential traits of race — catch them by her
art far more effectively than any anthropologist could
have done by calipers, tape, and camera. The mono-
graph devoted by Arsene Alexandre to the art of Malvina
Hoffman and published in Paris (1930) contains reproduc-
tions of certain unintentional studies of race. In search
of fresh fields in which to exercise her gifts of portraiture,
8 Field Museum of Natural History
Malvina Hoffman sought for types in Africa and in the
Far East. She created an African slave carved in wood,
a black marble bust of a Senegalese soldier, and the mask
of a Javanese woman — works of art of the highest merit.
In these sculptures the anthropologist finds triumphant
expressions of race. Intuition had transformed the artist
into an anthropologist; the mirror of her imagination
caught from her sitters and held only the essential traits
of race. I have used the word "intuition," but it must
not be supposed that Malvina Hoffman obtains her
results easily; her portraits are purchased by an exhausting
expenditure of mental power. She is a great sculptor
who lavishes her art in the service of anthropology.
The fact must not be overlooked that a knowledge of
physical and racial anthropology is not confined to those
who work in museums and universities. We are all
anthropologists; we became so as soon as we could recog-
nize the features of the mother who suckled us. Our
anthropological knowledge grew as we came to know the
facial traits and bodily habits of our family circle. Year
after year we have continued, quite unconsciously, to add
to our gallery of mental portraiture. The community in
which we are born and bred provides us with our anthro-
pological standards. If into our community there should
stray people from distant lands, from Africa, India, or
China, there is no need for us to measure their heads,
faces, or bodies in order to recognize their race. The
eye, at a single glance, picks out the racial features more
certainly than could a band of trained anthropologists,
who depend on measurements to distinguish Negro,
Indian, or Chinaman from European. The number of
features we take into momentary consideration as we
make a racial diagnosis is inconceivably great. The aim
of the professional anthropologist is to tabulate these
racial features and to measure them; but so numerous
are they, so shifting and indeterminate in nature, that
scientific measurement can never rival the accuracy and
BRONZE GROUP OF ITURI FOREST PYGMIES, CENTRAL AFRICA
tmV^H OF ILUIOlt
completeness of the rule of thumb method practised by
the man in the street. The artist who secures a striking
likeness does so because he or she is an anthropologist
by intuition. We professional anthropologists can never
hope to obtain by mere measurements the accuracy of
racial portraiture which comes by instinct to the true
artist. I hold that the busts, figures, and groups modeled
by Malvina Hoffman are priceless registers of anthro-
pological fact and in the full sense of the term are scientific
docimients as well as works of art.
Certainly I am far from decrying anthropology as a
science. Anthropologists must make precise measure-
ments. Only by adopting such methods can there be a
real advance in the study of human races. But I do
contend with all my might that scientific anthropology
must depend on the eye of the true artist for the recognition
and embodiment of racial types. Visitors to Chauncey
Keep Memorial Hall will find in the bronzes on exhibition
there the finest racial portraiture that the world has seen.
Thus a permanent abode has been provided for repre-
sentative members of the human family in Field Museum
of Natural History. What a motley of types our hmnan
family is! And yet, as we pass round the hall and make
the acquaintance of the chosen representatives of living
races, we see that amid what at first seems unredeemable
confusion there emerge three main types of humanity —
the white or European, the yellow or Mongolian, the
black or Negro. The recognition of these three prevailing
types and the perception of the differences which separate
them, as well as the similarities which unite them, repre-
sent the central crux of modem anthropology. Malvina
Hoffman has given to this crux or problem a concrete
representation which rightly occupies the central space
of the hall. On the top of a three-sided bronze pillar is
placed a terrestrial globe. On each side, under the globe,
is placed the statue of a man — a Nordic, an East-Asiatic,
and an African. The types have been chosen most
10 Field Museum op Natural History
aptly. The artist has shown no favoritism. The three
types have received equal treatment. It is right that
this group should hold a central position in the hall, for
no one can look at those three figures without asking
the question, Why this diversity of racial type? For
whether we accept the Biblical account of man's creation
or his emergence by evolutionary means, we have to believe
in the original unity of mankind. Out of unity has come
the diversity portrayed by the statues in the central group.
Critics may remind me that the human types which
prevailed in Egypt five thousand years ago are still
recognizable in our modern world. This is so. But in
turn I would ask my critics to go back fifty thousand years,
and what then? The answer is given in Hall C, devoted
to the Stone Age of the Old World, in Field Museum.
The prehistoric human types there exhibited differ pro-
foundly from their modem representatives. A tendency
to change is inherent in human flesh; in reality, the
world of humanity is not the same for two consecutive
days. Man to a higher degree than most animals is
subject to the laws of evolutionary change.
When we accept the laws of human mutability, the
interest of the racial types portrayed by Malvina Hoffman
grows upon us. Let us take her representatives of the
Mongolian family, to which has been assigned an important
section of the exhibition area. The family occupies, or
did occupy, a large part of the earth — eastern Asia, where
the type now finds its most distinctive characterization,
farther India, the Malay Archipelago, many islands of
the Pacific, and the entire American continent. The
central representative types from China, Manchuria,
Mongolia, Tibet, and Japan are well chosen and excellently
executed. However, it is not these, but the more aberrant
types from the periphery of the Mongolian area, which
excite the interest of the anthropologist. In the graceful
Hawaiian surf-rider and in the male types from Hawaii
and Samoa the Mongolian features are somewhat masked.
and yet in the Pacific we find every link that unites them
to the purer types of eastern Asia. Particularly interesting
are the two representative Ainus. One is the bearded
Mongol with whom all are familiar. The other repre-
sentative Ainu might be a Samoan or a Maori as well.
Mongolian humanity seems to have evolved from a darker
prototype. Again, in the Jakuns of the Malay Peninsula
we recognize the marks of the true Mongol. But what
of the Sakai of the same land? In the splendid head
modeled from life by Malvina Hoffman we observe a
prevalence of African and of Australoid characters, and
yet withal is there not also apparent something Malayan
or Mongolian? The variability of the Mongolian type
in America is also brought out by the exhibits in the
Hall of the Races of Mankind. The typical Mongolian
features may be unmistakable, as in the Eskimo, or
they may be almost completely replaced by Caucasoid
features as in the Sioux and Blackfoot Indians. How are
we to account for the range of variations which prevails
within a single type of humanity? The easiest solution
is to suppose that variations have arisen from the mixing
of pure breeds, but even if we accept this explanation
for some of the aberrant forms just mentioned, we still
have to account for the appearance of the original or
pure types. To explain satisfactorily the racial problems
so realistically and so truthfully presented to us in this
hall, we have to accept as a truth the prevalence of the
laws of evolution in the world of humanity.
It was when Malvina Hoffman's enthusiasm came to
portray the racial types of Africa that it reached its
highest and happiest flights. The central type of Africa
is represented by a Senegal Negro beating a drum. The
genial Batwa youth from the Belgian Congo and the
graceful dancing girl of the Sara tribe are close akin to
this central type. The placid and serene face of the
Abyssinian girl and the fuzzy-headed Somali shown in a
bust display an early affinity of the African type with
12 ' Field Museum of Natural History
those of Arabia and of India. The Bushman, the most
aberrant of all African types, is very artistically conceived.
The Bushman woman and her baby appeal with equal
force to the student of races, the professional artist, and the
lover of mankind. When we have noted the exceedingly
great number of variations taken by black-skinned races
and how aberrant some of these African types are, such
as the Bushman and Ituri Pygmies, we realize how fertile
the African continent has been in the production of human
In speaking of the white, yellow, and black types of
humanity represented in the central group, I pointed out
the similarities which unite these types as well as the
differences which separate them. During many thousands
of years the world of humanity has been in the throes
of evolution, and these are the dominant types which
have emerged. I do not wish to leave the impression that
I regard the choice samples of humanity now assembled
in the Hall of the Races of Mankind as mere illustrations
of the manner in which the laws of evolution work out
their effects on mankind. To me every type is nature's
attempt to give the world a happier and better kind of
Sir Arthur Keith
Conservator and Professor in the Royal College
of Surgeons of England,
Corresponding Member of Field Museum
THE RACES OF MANKIND
The bronze figures and busts in this hall were selected
as representatives of the more important divisions of
the human species, particular emphasis being laid on
primitive and lesser known peoples of the worid. The
principle of arrangement in the hall is geographical and
may be ascertained from the plan shown on page 38. The
central group (Plate I), which is intended to symbolize
the unity of mankind, man as a well-defined, uniform
species, is composed of three statues of heroic size repre-
senting a white, a yellow, and a black man standing
beneath a large globe upon which the five continents as
the habitat of the human species are outlined. Each
embodies the highest physical qualities of his race.
The science of human biology, or, as it is also called,
physical anthropology, deals with the structure of the
human body; the distinctive physical characters of the vari-
ous racial divisions of mankind; the interrelationship
of the peoples of the world; and the geographical distri-
bution of man. In the study of the anatomy and physi-
ology of man, therefore, he is regarded as an animal species,
and research is based on living people, fossilized human
remains, and both living and fossil animals closely related
to man. The study of somatic structure can be divided
into two parts — the physical characters of the living
person and the anatomy of the skeleton.
Upon examination, the bodily structure of man differs
so slightly from that of the higher apes that he must be
classed in the same general division of the animal kingdom,
where he occupies the special subdivision Hominidae.
While there are numerous schemes of classifying the
various races of mankind, it is desirable to recognize
three main divisions based on the color of the skin and
14 Field Museum op Natural History
the characters of the hair. The three groups are the
Caucasian or white races, the Mongolian or yellow races
of Asia, and the Negroid or black races of Africa.
In order to define a race, and also for comparison of
racial characters either in the same group or among
divergent peoples, a series of measurements and observa-
tions must be made. For example, if a comparative
study of the stature of the northern and southern Chinese
should be desired, it would be necessary to obtain by
measurements the average standing height of a large
number of individuals of both groups. The shape of the
head forms one of the most important criteria for pre-
liminary classification. The length and breadth of the
head are obtained by means of special calipers. The
ratio of the length to the breadth is expressed as a per-
centage, which is known as the cephalic index. When
the ratio is below 75 per cent the head is said to be long,
and when above 80 per cent the term "round head" is
There are a number of measurements on the head and
body which have been standardized, so that the data
obtained can be used for comparative purposes. Other
criteria are the color of the skin, hair, and eyes and the
form of the nose, ears, and lips. The influence of heredity
and the effects of environment are additional problems
which are of great importance and require more profound
study. Racial mixtures, the effects of disease on a popula-
tion, artificial deformation of the head and other organs,
growth changes, bodily functions such as the use and
adaptation of special organs, for instance the hands and
feet, are other problems of paramount significance. The
physical characters which can be used for a preliminary
racial analysis are the form, color, and quantity of the
hair; the color of the skin; the shape of the head and face;
and the character of the nose, eyes, mouth, and lips.
The stature is also used as a valuable criterion of racial
Human Biology 16
The hair may be classified as straight, as among the
Mongoloid peoples; wavy, as typified by Europeans; or
woolly, as illustrated by the Negro. While there are
infinite varieties and shades of hair color, they are generally
classified as fair, dark, and black. Among the fair-haired
peoples the Scandinavian group is perhaps the most con-
spicuous, Negroes present a dark-haired example, and
the Mongols are typical of the black-haired peoples.
The variations in skin color naturally grade one into
another, particularly where there is racial intermarriage,
but three basic color groups — white, yellow and black —
are recognized as principles of classification.
There are three main types of head shapes — long,
round, and intermediate. These divisions are based on
the relation of the length of the skull to the breadth.
For example, the head is termed long if the breadth is
less than three-quarters of the length, and within this
division are included North and South Europeans and
the inhabitants of Africa. The round-headed peoples
are typified by the Mongoloid group and the Alpine
race of central Europe.
In profile the face may project markedly forward
from the line of the forehead, as among the Negroes
(prognathism), in contrast to the normal projection among
European peoples. In general, long-headed individuals
have narrow faces, while broad faces are associated with
round heads. There are, however, some notable excep-
tions to this harmonic relation, as, for example, the long
head and broad face of the Eskimo and the broad head
and narrow face so characteristic of the Basque.
The nose is a feature which has always attracted
attention. In profile, noses are classified as long or short,
concave, straight, or convex. The root may be pinched
or broad; the nostrils may be narrow, medium, or broad.
The relation of the length to the breadth of the nose is
a valuable physical criterion. In general the white races
16 Field Museum op Natural History
have narrow noses; the Negroes have the typical broad
nose with flaring nostrils; and the Mongoloid group has
an intermediate nasal index. The so-called Jewish nose
is not tjrpical of the true Semites, as, for example, the
Beduins of North Arabia, but appears to be a racial
character inherited from the ancient Hittites.
The variations in eye color make this character of
little value as a racial trait. The shape of the opening
is generally horizontal and widely open in Europeans,
while in the Far East it is often almond-shaped, and a
fold of skin, called the Mongolian fold, frequently covers
the inner angle of the eye. The shape of the mouth and
the thickness of the lips are often valuable criteria, since
there is a wide range of variation from those of the
European to the thick-lipped West African Negro.
Stature is another character which possesses racial
significance. Variations in standing height are governed
by hereditary traits combined with environmental factors.
For example, stunted peoples usually inhabit regions of
the earth where the struggle for existence is keen, or
heavily forested areas where there is an absence of sun-
light. On the other hand, nomadic existence in a pleasant
land appears to favor tall stature. For example, the Nil-
otic Negroes, including the Shilluk (Plate II), are very tall,
while the Eskimos belong to the medium short group.
This brief introduction is followed by a general survey
of the races of mankind. For the sake of clarity the
peoples of each continent will be examined according to
the geographical arrangement of the sculptures in the hall
(Plan, p. 38). These are exhibited in the following
order: Africa, Europe, Asia, America, and Oceania.
BRONZE STATUE OF VEDDA, CEYLON
m:Bt:]i OF [lum
DESCRIPTION OF RACES
The continent of Africa covers an area of 12,000,000
square miles, almost four times the size of the United
States. The population has been roughly estimated at
150,000,000, but this is a vague approximation. About
two-thirds of the continent — the forest zone comprising
a western coastal strip and a large central area — is the
habitat of true Negroes. These show many important
local variations in physical appearance. The general
physique of the African is well represented in the black
man's statue in tKe central group.
The Negro is characterized by a dark skin color vary-
ing from extremely dark brown to almost black, though
perhaps the skin is never jet black, and the stature varies
considerably according to locality. The Kru of Liberia,
the Ibo of Nigeria, and the Ijaw of the Niger Delta are
often mentioned as primitive physical Negro types. The
West African coastal Negro is long-headed, of medium
stature, extremely well developed, with a heavy torso
and massive limbs. The arms are long and the legs short
in comparison with the length of the trunk. In all Negroes
the face is usually broad and massive, sometimes with a
projecting chin. The nose is broad, and the lips are thick
and everted. Dark eyes and woolly hair likewise are
constant Negro features. The problems as to the origin
of Negro types are too complex to be discussed here, yet
the main branches of Negro stock may be mentioned.
NEGROES OF THE UPPER NILE
In order to account for this type, which is usually
called Nilotic, a hypothesis regarding the intrusion of a
foreign race is necessary. Anthropologists believe that
migratory waves of people, called Hamites, penetrated
18 Field Museum op Natural History
northeast Africa from a remote period long before the
dawn of history. It is thought also that the crossing of
these Hamitic intruders with the true Negro produced
the Nilotic type. The Nilotic Negroes, if compared with
true Negroes of West Africa, show greater stature, a far
more slender build, and a refinement of physiognomy,
usually in the form of a narrower nose and thinner lips.
NEGROES OF NORTHEAST AFRICA
In Kenya Colony are tribes whose physical type has
been affected by intrusive Hamites. Here, as among the
Nilotic Negroes, the true Negro physique has been
modified in the direction of greater stature, a less massive
build, and a refinement of the nose and mouth. These
"Hamiticised" Negroes, of whom the Suk, the Masai,
and the Nandi are examples, are referred to by some
anthropologists as Half-Hamites.
BUSHMEN AND HOTTENTOTS
From a racial standpoint the Bushmen are the most
interesting people south of equatorial Africa. At present
they are mainly confined to the Kalahari Desert. The
Bushmen possess short, frizzly hair which grows in separate
tufts coiled into balls and because of its appearance is
known as "peppercorn" hair. There is very little hair
on the face and body. The skin ranges in color from yellow
to olive, and becomes markedly wrinkled at an early age.
The head is extremely small, low in the crown, and in
shape intermediate between long and round. The width
of the cheek-bones combined with the narrowness of the
forehead gives the face a lozenge-shaped appearance. The
forehead is slightly protruding, and the nose is broader
and flatter than in any other race. The dark eyes are
often narrow and slightly oblique. The average male is
below five feet in stature. In both sexes there is a peculiar
development of the buttocks, which is often extremely
accentuated among the women. The racial mixture of
the Bushmen with Negroes and possibly, with early invad-
Description op Races 19
ing Hamites resulted in a slightly taller people called
Hottentots, who possess a longer and narrower head and a
more protruding face. The Hottentots formerly inhabited
the western part of South Africa, but their tribal organiza-
tion is preserved at present only in Southwest Africa.
It has not yet been determined what genetic relation-
ship exists between true Negroes, Pygmies (often called
Negrillos), Bushmen, and Hottentots. Here a caution is
necessary, since many small Negroid tribes of the central
forest region are referred to as Pygmies. But some of
these (for example, the Batwa represented in a bronze
bust, No. 6) have probably issued from a crossing of
Pygmies with Negroes.
There are, however, groups of true Pygmies, the most
tjHpical of which are the Wambuti of the Ituri Forest in
the northeast Belgian Congo. Their dark brown hair is
usually short. Their skin color varies from light brown
with a yellow tinge to a very dark chocolate color. The
average male stature is five feet two inches, and both the
body and legs are short. There is a peculiar development
of the buttocks similar to that of the Kalahari Bushmen.
In shape the head is intermediate between long and round,
and there is some protrusion of the face. The lips are
full, and the root of the nose is flat and broad.
The Hamites, who inhabit north and northeast Africa,
belong to the Caucasian branch of mankind. They possess
dark brown or black hair, which is either curly or wavy
in form, and the skin varies in color from reddish brown
to dark brown. Their average stature is about five feet
five inches, and their build is slender. The typical
Hamite possesses a long head, an oval elongated face
with no forward protrusion, thin lips, pointed chin, and
a prominent, well-shaped, narrow nose. Two main divi-
sions of Hamites must be recognized, the northern and
20 Field Museum of Natural History
eastern. The principal northern Hamites are the Berbers
and the Tuareg, who are confined to the Sahara region.
The eastern group of Hamites comprises the Somali,
Hadendoa, and Bisharin peoples.
These people, now living in north and northeast
Africa, migrated from Arabia at an early date. They
are medium in stature, long-headed and dark-haired, and
possess elliptical faces with straight or convex noses.
This group has intermarried with other racial divisions;
for example, with Negroes, so that intermediate Arab-
Negro types have been produced.
We now proceed to a review of the sculptures in the
hall. The Hamitic peoples from the north and northeast
of Africa are represented by four examples. The bronze
bust of an Abyssinian (No. 14) shows the fine, delicate
features characteristic of the group. There is also the head
of an Abyssinian woman (No. 3) carved out of black
Belgian marble. The regularity of the features and the
peculiar method of dressing the hair are particularly well
portrayed by the medium employed. The bust of a
Somali (No. 12) also exhibits the typical Hamitic features,
while the Nubian (No. 15) shows a mixture of Hamitic
and Negro blood. This man is from Luxor in Egypt,
but the thickness of his lips differentiates him slightly
from the typical Fellah of the Nile Valley.
The Negroes of the Upper Nile Valley are represented
by a noteworthy full-length statue — a Shilluk warrior
(No. 9; Plate II). This dark-skinned man is six feet eight
inches in height. He is standing on one leg in the peculiar
pose characteristic of these people. The Mangbetu of
the northeast Congo region are primarily a true Negro
type; but the light brown skin of the aristocratic class
suggests some Hamitic mixture. The bust of a Mangbetu
woman (No. 7) is interesting for the peculiar mode of
hair-dressing and the deformation of the head. The
Description of Races 21
heads of children are bound tightly with bandages which
force them to grow both long and narrow. The resulting
deformation is considered a mark of beauty. The profile
of this woman clearly shows the effects of this treatment.
The Negro type is illustrated by two full-length
figures which are complementary: a Senegalese drummer
(No. 13) and a dancing girl of the Sara tribe (No. 5).
These two statues, coated with a black patina, are shown
in poses characteristic of the rhythmic movements asso-
ciated with Negro music. The vivacious and graceful
figure of the girl in dancing posture strikingly contrasts
with the dreamy expression of the drummer.
In Dahomey, a French possession on the Guinea coast
of West Africa, occurs a true Negro type. A well-developed
Dahomey man is shown in a bust (No. 8). The head of
a woman (No. 11) from the Sudan shows the remarkable
coiffure which is fashionable among her people. The
head of a Ubangi duck-billed girl (No. 10) portrays one
of the most remarkable artificial deformations in existence.
A girl's lips are perforated, and small studs are inserted
in order to broaden them. At intervals the size of the
lip studs is increased, so that the lower lip eventually
has to be supported from below by the hand. The central
or equatorial peoples of Africa are represented by a life-
size group of Ituri Forest Pygmies (No. 16). While the
man beats rhythmically on the skin of the drum, his wife
carrying her small baby listens attentively.
The splendid Bushman family group (No. 1) shows a
hunter accompanied by his wife, who carries the baby
strapped to her back. In addition, there are the bust
of a Bushman woman (No. 4) and the head of a man
(No. 2) which portray well the racial characters of this
The modem inhabitants of Europe can be divided into
three groups — Mediterranean, Alpine, and Nordic. While
there has been untold interbreeding of these basic stocks
22 Field Museum of Natural History
since paleolithic times, it is still possible to adopt this
The Mediterranean or brown race is exemplified by
an Italian (No. 18), who is short in stature and light
in build, with an olive complexion, dark hair and eyes,
long head, narrow oval face, and a small mouth. This
group is now mainly confined to the Iberian Peninsula,
western Mediterranean islands, southern France and Italy,
and the western part of Great Britain.
The Alpine race comprises the majority of the round-
headed peoples of Europe. They extend from the central
plateau of France, Switzerland, and Czechoslovakia south-
ward into the Balkans and eastward into Russia. A
typical member of this group possesses a fairly dark com-
plexion, brown wavy hair, thick eyebrows over brown
eyes, strong body hair, broad face, sometimes a thick
neck, and a medium to heavy build.
The Nordic peoples inhabit Scandinavia, northern
Germany, and part of Holland and Belgium. There is
also a strong Nordic element in Great Britain. A tall
Swede, with light complexion and hair, blue eyes, long
head, and face with a prominent nose and chin, is a
typical member of this racial group.
The racial divisions of Europe are represented by the
full-length figures of a Sicilian fisherman (No. 18) who
is shown with his fishing net, and a Nordic (No. 21).
In this section are also displayed busts of a woman
(No. 20) from Brittany, France, with her picturesque
head-dress, and of a Basque (No. 22; Plate IV, Fig. 1)
from northern Spain. There are also heads of an Anglo-
Saxon (No. 19) and a Mediterranean (No. 17) of the
type so often seen in France.
The study of the peoples of Asia is beset with numerous
difficulties and presents many complex problems. In view
of the evidence available it seems probable that man
Description of Races 23
originated somewhere on this vast continent. A general
survey of Asia is presented here based on six large geo-
graphical divisions: southwest, south, southeast, east,
central, and north.
This area was originally inhabited by early members
of the Mediterranean stock, which forms the basic popula-
tion at the present time. The northern and southern
extremities of this section are inhabited by round-headed
peoples. For example, in Armenia and Anatolia the
characteristic individual possesses dark hair, a tawny-
white skin, medium stature, and a prominent aquiline
nose with a depressed tip and large wings. Along the
southern coast of Arabia the dominant type is round-
headed, and there are also smaller groups, such as the
Druzes, scattered along the west coast and in Mesopotamia
(Iraq) on the east. As a representative of the great Arab
group (No. 24) there was selected one of the workmen
at Kish, where Field Museum and Oxford University have
been conducting archaeological excavations on a large
scale for ten seasons.
The Jewish people, who form part of the great Mediter-
ranean group, are divided into two stocks — the Ash-
kenazim and the Sephardim. The former includes the
Jews of Russia and of central and western Europe; while
the latter comprises those of Spain, Portugal, Asia Minor,
Egypt, and Arabia. According to Haddon, the original
Jews were racially akin to the modem Beduins of northern
Arabia and blended at an early date with Amorites,
Philistines, and Hittites, from whom they acquired the
so-called "Jewish" nose. This entire region, with the
exception of certain isolated zones, has been overrun in
historic times by numerous invasions so that the modem
population is extremely mixed.
In Persia the basic stock consists of two types — the
Proto-Nordic and representatives of a branch of the
Mediterranean race. There are also intrusive elements.
24 Field Museum of Natural History
such as the Kurds, Arabs, Armenians, and others who
have settled in the country. Afghanistan is essentially
the homeland of the Indo-Afghan stock, which is charac-
terized by black, wavy hair, light, transparent brown
complexions, long heads and faces, prominent, narrow
noses, and dark eyes. An Afghan money lender (No. 33),
clutching pieces of silver in his right hand, possesses the
typical features of this group. The inhabitants of Balu-
chistan are closely related to the Afghans. Among the
Baluchi, however, the head is more round in shape, so
that they may be classified among Indo-Iranian peoples.
There are three main geographical regions in India
which appear to have influenced the principal racial groups.
In the north lies the Himalayan chain of mountains; in
the central northern portion are the sweeping plains called
Hindustan; while to the south extends the great plateau,
in many places jungle-covered, called the Deccan. With
a varied population of about 350,000,000, racial origins
in India are incapable of exact definition. In prehistoric
times India was probably inhabited by a primitive
Negroid population related to the aborigines of Ceylon,
Sumatra, and possibly even Australia. It is believed also
that at an early date Dravidian stocks entered India from
the northwest frontier region and Mongoloid races
from the northeast territory. Dravidian is the general
term used by Haddon for the main population of the
Deccan. The physical characters are a long head,
abundant, wavy hair, brownish black skin, and medium
The Veddas of Ceylon are one of the most interesting
primitive groups in India. They belong to the pre-
Dravidian division, and their physical characters comprise
long, black hair which is coarse and wavy, dark brown
skin, short stature, and the smallest of human skulls.
The form of the head is long and narrow and the forehead
BRONZE STATUE OF MIDDLE-AGED AINU, ISLAND OF YEZO, JAPAN
Description of Races 25
slightly retreating, with prominent brow ridges, a relatively
broad face and nose, thin lips, and pointed chin.
In the hall (section C) is shown a typical young Vedda
(No. 23) with a bow by his right side. Among the full-
length figures of bronze are a Tamil and a man from
Kashmir. The Tamil occupy the northern half of the
island of Ceylon and part of the mainland of southern
India. They belong to the Dravidian group. A Tamil
(No. 35) is shown in the act of climbing a large palm
tree — a feat which is performed with uncanny skill. The
Kashmiri from Gwalior (No. 27) is shown in the attitude
of meditation. These people possess a light, transparent,
brown skin, and are usually of relatively tall stature. The
head is long with a well-developed forehead, a long,
narrow face, regular features, and prominent, finely
chiseled, narrow nose.
Other figures in this section represent a Singhalese
(No. 26) from Kandy in Ceylon; a man from Kashmir
(No. 28); a woman (No. 25) from Rajputana belonging
to the "untouchable" caste; a Brahman (No. 29) from
Benares; and a man (No. 31) and a woman (No. 32)
from Bengal. These sculptures show the refined features
of the people of northern India. There is also the head
of a beautiful Jaipur woman (No. 30) carved from lime-
stone. It is remarkable for the regularity of her pleasing
The Andaman Islands, located in the Indian Ocean,
are inhabited by members of the Negrito group, which
comprises the Semang of the Malay Peninsula and eastern
Sumatra; the Aeta of the Philippine Islands, and the
Tapiro of New Guinea. The Andamanese are represented
by an individual (No. 36) seated on a rock with his large
bow held in his left hand and an arrow drawn back to his
right cheek. He possesses the characteristic features of
his group, which are short, black hair (in others some-
times with a reddish tinge), black skin, well-proportioned
body, a small, round head, and small hands. The face is
26 Field Museum of Natural History
broad, the lips full but not everted, and there is no
projection of the jaws.
The inhabitants of Burma represent southern Mon-
goloid tjHpes, possessing black hair (almost absent on the
face and body), round heads, broad faces and noses, and
frequently oblique eyes. The color of the skin varies
from yellow to brown according to locality. For example,
the farther removed from China, the less yellow is the
color of the skin. As a representative of these people,
the head of a man (No. 34) is shown, and is interesting in
comparison with the peoples of India and China.
MALAY PENINSULA AND MALAY ARCHIPELAGO
The population of this region may be divided into two
sections — a large southern Mongoloid group and a group
not included in this classification. In the dense jungles of
the Malay Peninsula live the Semang and the Sakai. The
former belong to the Negrito or Pygmy group, since they
are five feet or less in stature. The hair is short and
frizzy, black in color with a reddish tinge and sparse on
the face and body. The skin is dark chocolate brown in
color. The shape of the head tends to be round; the lips
are generally thin; the nose is short, flat, and extremely
broad. The Semang also inhabit the eastern portion of
the island of Sumatra. The representative of this group
is a Pygmy hunter (No. 64) with his long blow-gun poised
for shooting a bird from a leafy tree top.
In the southern part of the Malay Peninsula also live
the Sakai, who represent the second element among the
aboriginal tribes of this region. They have intermarried
considerably with the Negritos in the north and the Proto-
Malays in the south. They differ from the Negritos in
the lighter color of their skins, in their greater stature,
and in their long, wavy, or curly hair, which is black
with a reddish tinge. The Sakai belong to the pre-
Dravidian group, being related to the Veddas of Ceylon
Description of Races 27
and to the primitive jungle tribes of southern India.
The head of the Sakai (No. 63) was modeled by Miss
Hoffman in ninety minutes in the Malayan jungle.
There is still a third primitive group in the Malay
Peninsula. The Jakun, sometimes called "Savage Malays,"
possess a dark red or coppery-brown skin and straight,
dark, coarse hair. The head is round with high cheek-
bones and dark eyes with a tendency to obliquity. Busts
of a Jakun man (No. 65) and a girl (No. 67) are shown.
In marked contrast to these primitive types, there is
a pure type of Malay (No. 61) whose features express a
high grade of intelligence compared with the Jakun.
The Malayan family (or, as it is also called, Indo-
nesian) is distributed over the greater portion of the
Malay Archipelago. It may be divided into the following
groups: the Malay proper of the Malay Peninsula; the
aborigines of the Philippines, Borneo, and Celebes; the
Javanese and Sundanese of Java and Bali; and the Bataks
of Sumatra. There are also scattered members of this
family in Formosa and Madagascar. A typical Malayan
is relatively short in stature; has dark, wavy hair, tawny
yellow-colored skin ; lozenge-shaped face, prominent cheek-
bones, and slightly projecting jaws. The shape of the head
varies markedly from long to round, with the former as
the probable basic shape.
The types selected from the peoples of the Malay
Archipelago represent a Dyak from Sarawak in Borneo
(No. 62), who bears an elaborate tattooed design on his
chest; a boy (No. 69) and a young girl (No. 71) from Java;
and an attractive woman from the picturesque island of
Bali (No. 70). There is also a composite group of figures
representing various people of the Archipelago (No. 73).
These are a pair of cockfighters intent on their national
sport, watched by a girl from Bali with a platter of fruit
balanced on her head, and a small boy from Java eating
a banana. In physical type the two men are similar,
28 Field Museum of Natural History
although one is from Borneo and the other from the island
of Madura, situated off the north coast of Java.
CHINA AND JAPAN
The present Republic of China extends over an area
which may exceed 4,000,000 square miles, with a popula-
tion of about 400,000,000 within the boundary of China
proper. The Chinese represent a single racial unit, which
has had sufficient strength to maintain its culture and
traditions in the face of numerous invaders. The Chinese
as a whole are medium in stature. The shape of the head
is intermediate between long and round, the skin yellowish
brown in color, eyes oblique with the Mongolian fold, and
hair straight and black.
There are, according to Buxton, two types of northern
Chinese, one of which appears to be allied to the southern
Chinese, and the other to the eastern Tibetans. From
statistical data it can be shown that there is a tall element
in the population, only paralleled among the neighboring
Tibetans. The people of southern China belong to the
same group as the northerners, but there are certain
remarkable differences. In southern China the stature is
less and the head is shorter in length, which increases the
cephalic index as the breadth remains fairly constant.
The width of the nose appears slightly greater, which may
be due to the increase of heat and moisture of the climate.
The color of the skin appears to be darker in the south.
As representatives of the racial types of China, the
following are on exhibition: the full-length figure of a
Chinese coolie (No. 49) posed in the shafts of his jinriksha;
and the bust of a Cantonese woman (No. 40) of the peasant
class, over her shoulder a bamboo pole, which is used
for carrying loads. There are also a bronze bust of a
Chinese scholar (No. 41) and a stone bust of an attractive
lady (No. 42) in her ornamented robes.
In prehistoric times the Ainu were the earliest inhabit-
ants of the islands which now comprise the Japanese
BRONZE STATUE OF PRIEST, LHASA, TIBET
Description of Races 29
empire. At present confined to the northern island of
Yezo, the Kuriles, and the southern portion of Saghalin
Island, they differ from the Japanese and all other Mon-
golian races in their luxuriant black beards, the bushy
and wavy head hair, and the general hairiness of other
parts of the body. The color of the skin resembles that
of the tanned central European. Medium in stature,
the average Ainu is thick-set, with a head intermediate in
shape between long and round, and a broad face, which
does not project markedly. The narrow nose is short
and concave. The large horizontal eyes are usually dark
brown in color. The racial position of the Ainu is
a question of considerable interest. They represent a
prehistoric stock, which has been markedly specialized.
There are two distinct types of modem Japanese, one
of which possesses fine features, while the other is more
coarse in type. Both possess certain traits in common.
The hair is always black and may be curly in form,
especially where influenced by Ainu blood. In general,
the stature is short, although there is considerable varia-
tion. The cephalic index and skin color are also variable
characters. The color of the eyes is dark brown. In
order to differentiate between the two classes, it will be
necessary to make some comparisons.
The fine or aristocratic type is tall and slender, with
an elongated face, prominent, narrow, arched nose, eyes
either straight or oblique, and the epicanthic fold rarely
absent. The coarse type, which may represent immigrants
from southeastern Asia, is short and stocky, with a broad
face, short, concave nose with roimded nostrils, an oblique
eye, usually an epicanthic fold, and a darker complexion
than the other group.
As representatives of these islands are shown the bust
of a Japanese man (No. 51) and a yoimg woman (No. 50).
The life-size statue of a middle-aged Ainu (No. 52)
is a most important contribution to the study of this
racial type. The Ainu are a shy and retiring people, but,
30 Field Museum op Natural History
with generous local assistance, Malvina Hoffman was
able to model the Ainu in question. She likewise modeled
the head of a young man of this primitive tribe (No. 53).
CENTRAL AND NORTHERN ASIA
Central Asia comprises Tibet, Chinese Turkestan, and
Mongolia. Northern Asia is practically identical with
Siberia, which covers approximately one-quarter of the
entire continent. The vast area of northern Asia is
divided by the Yenisei River into western and eastern
Siberia. The inhabitants may be grouped as Palaeo-
Siberians and Neo-Siberians. The latter, ' who inhabit
chiefly the western geographical division, are a miscel-
laneous group including the Finnish-speaking tribes,
Samoyeds, and Turkish groups.
Among the Palaeo-Asiatics are the Chukchi of north-
eastern Siberia; the Koryak, who live between the Anadir
River and Kamchatka; and the Kamchadal. The Gilyak,
Ainu, and those Eskimo who live on the Asiatic side of
Bering Straits, are sometimes included in this division.
The physical characters are black hair, brown or reddish-
colored sparse beard, yellowish white or brown skin, some-
times with a flat face, prominent cheek-bones, oblique
eyes, and a straight or concave nose. The head form
varies from intermediate to round, although traces of a
very ancient long-headed stock are definitely present.
On exhibition in Hall 3 is a seated figure of a Tibetan
priest from Lhasa (No. 44), his brow furrowed, deep in
meditation. There are also the portrait head of a Tibetan
woman from Lhasa (No. 45), and the head of a Mongol
priest (No. 38) from Outer Mongolia.
The head of an Eskimo man (No. 39) and a woman
(No. 37) are shown in the Asiatic division of the hall,
because of their close racial affinities with the Mongoloid
group whose physical characters they possess. They are,
however, short in stature, with long and high head, flat
and broad face, prominent cheek-bones, narrow prominent
nose, and remarkably small hands and feet.
Description of Races 31
Before the advent of European peoples the population
of the Americas consisted of aborigines, called by Columbus
Indians. From a historical viewpoint they are the true
Americans. Moreover, up to the present time, there is
no definite archaeological evidence for the existence of
any pre-Indian peoples or cultures. It is generally con-
ceded that the Indians are of Mongoloid stock. They
entered the New World at least fifteen thousand years
ago in a series of migrations extending over many years.
Small groups probably crossed Bering Straits, either
because of pressure from hostile tribes or in search of new
himting grounds. Traveling south and east, they gradually
spread over North, Central, and South America. The
theory of waves of migration is corroborated by the fact
that on either side of Bering Straits the country is incapable
of supporting a large population, and by the fact that the
American Indians, while possessing many traits in common,
often show differentiation in variable physical characters.
I The constant physical characters of the American
Indians consist of a brown skin which frequently bears a
reddish or yellowish tinge; dark eyes; straight, coarse,
black hair; a minimum of beard and body hair; and a broad
face with high and prominent cheek-bones. The head is
usually round, although there are certain groups in which
long heads predominate. With regard to stature, this
character also varies in different groups. The tallest
people inhabited the region of the Mississippi Valley and
extended for some distance to the north and east.
Among the Plains Indians and the tribes of the
Northern and Eastern Woodlands there is little variation
of the above characters. The Northwest Coast Indians,
however, possess lighter skin and hair than do the other
groups. They are medium in stature, with short bodies
and long arms, and apparently are closely allied to the
natives of northeastern Asia. The tribes north of this
general region, including the Tlingit, Haida, and Tsim-
32 Field Museum of Natural History
shian, are above the average in stature. They have large
heads with extremely broad faces and concave or straight
noses. In the southern part of this region, as, for example,
among the Kwakiutl, the people are less tall, and are
round-headed, with broad, high faces, and very high,
narrow noses, which are frequently convex in shape.
These Indians inhabit the northwest coast from Lat. 60°
north to the northern boundary of the state of Washington.
In the hall are shown a magnificent Blackfoot Indian
(No. 55; Plate VIII) in the pose he adopts at the end of
a successful hunt; and the head of a Sioux brave (No. 56).
The Eskimo form a definite group, clearly of Asiatic
origin. In many respects they are the most Mongoloid
of all Americans. They are distinguished by a short,
stocky build; markedly long heads, combined with very
broad faces (an unusual feature in a people with a long
skull); massive jaws; and narrow noses. The sides of the
head are often flat, and a ridge may be present down the
center of the skull. The eyes frequently show the Mon-
goloid fold. For purposes of comparison the Eskimos
have been placed in the Asiatic section (p. 30).
In Mexico and Central America the average stature is
medium to short, and round heads predominate, although
the evidence suggests that the first inhabitants were long-
headed and were conquered by these later invaders.
The Indians of South America bear, in general, the
physical characters common to the whole race. It is
believed that they entered that continent through a succes-
sion of migrations by way of the Isthmus of Panama.
From time to time it has been asserted that early
human remains have been discovered in America; for
example, in Argentina, primitive types of Tertiary fossil
man were reported; but all alleged evidence of this
character has been discredited. As in the case of North
America, no definite archaeological evidence of early man
has come to light. The oldest burials reveal long-headed
BRONZE STATUE OF BLACKFOOT INDIAN, NORTH AMERICA
Description of Races 33
t3T)es. At the present time traces of this character are
found in peoples with a marginal or isolated distribution.
Oceania is the area which extends from Australia to
Easter Island and from New Zealand northward to
Hawaii, and includes all the island groups of the Pacific
Ocean. The consensus of opinion is that man first entered
the Pacific area from southeastern Asia. There have also
been several important waves of migration, which add to
the complexity of the racial problems involved. The six
principal racial divisions in Oceania include the inhabitants
of Australia, Tasmania, Melanesia, New Guinea, Polynesia,
Australia is the smallest continent, in area being
approximately the same size as the United States. In
general, the physical traits of the Australian aborigines
are uniform throughout the continent, although there
are numerous minor variations. Archaeological evidence
suggests that man entered this continent at a very early
date and that he remained but little changed by outside
factors until the arrival of the first Europeans in 1606.
The physical characters of the aboriginal Australian
are jet black wavy or curly hair, which is often well
developed on the face; dark chocolate brown skin; medium
stature; and a long head with a fiat, retreating forehead,
prominent brow ridges, projecting face, and a deeply set,
The Tasmanians became extinct during the latter part
of the nineteenth century. They were of medium height,
had black to dark brown skins, woolly hair, and heavy
brow ridges. The face was long, oval, or pentagonal in
shape, while the head was sloping and small in size. The
nose was short and broad, and the teeth were large. In
general, the physical characters and primitive culture of
34 Field Museum of Natural History
the Tasmanians were similar to those of the Australians.
There is reason to suppose that they were part of the same
group which migrated into that region at an early date.
The name is derived from the black skin color of the
peoples who inhabit these islands. This area embraces
the Bismarck Archipelago, northeast of New Guinea, the
Louisiade, Solomon, Santa Cruz, New Hebrides and
Loyalty Islands, New Caledonia, Fiji, and small inter-
vening groups. While a large Papuan element prevails
throughout the population of Melanesia, there have also
been several movements of racial stocks from Indonesia.
The result of these minglings of peoples is that the modem
population shows considerable variation and is by no
means homogeneous in character. The hair of the
Melanesians is usually woolly, but may be either curly
or wavy. The skin ranges from very dark to light brown.
The stature varies from short to medium. The head is
usually long in shape, but there are isolated round-headed
groups. The forehead is commonly rounded, and the
brow ridges are rarely prominent. The nose is broad,
sometimes straight, and broader than that of the Papuan.
The inhabitants of New Guinea and the adjacent island
groups belong to the woolly-haired branch of mankind.
There is considerable variety of racial type, which is
subdivided into Negritos, Papuans, and Melanesians.
Typical Negritos are the Tapiro Pygmies of the western
mountains in Dutch New Guinea, who can be compared
with the inhabitants of the Andaman Islands, the Semang
Pygmies of the central part of the Malay Peninsula and
eastern Sumatra, and the Negritos of the Philippines..
The hair of the Tapiro is short, black in color, and
abundant on face and body. The skin is yellowish brown
in color. In stature the average Tapiro is four feet nine
inches. The head shows considerable variation in shape.
Description of Races 35
the nose is straight and of medium breadth. A trait
frequent among them and among other Negritos is that
the upper Hp is deep and convex.
The Papuans are dark-skinned, short in stature, and
long-headed. The black hair is often long and may be
abundant on the face. The forehead is retreating, the
brow ridges are prominent, and the lower part of the face
projects markedly. The broad nose is often prominent and
convex, while the tip is sometimes turned down. The
Papuans now inhabit the greater part of New Guinea,
and were originally distributed throughout Melanesia.
Formerly they were probably in parts of Australia and
certainly as a variety in Tasmania.
This area of the central Pacific region includes the
numerous groups and small islands mostly situated south
of the equator. The two islands of New Zealand are the
largest of the entire area, which also includes the Hawaiian,
Society and Marquesan groups, as well as Tonga and
Samoa. The origin of the Polynesians remains in con-
siderable doubt, but it is believed that at an early date
they migrated into this large area from southeastern
Asia. The Polynesian is of good appearance and average
to tall in stature, the hair being straight or wavy in form
and black in color. The skin varies from that of a South
European to several shades of brown. The shape of the
head is round, but there are smaller divisions of people
with long or intermediate shaped heads. In general form
the face is elliptical with relatively prominent cheek-bones,
and a prominent nose generally straight as among the
Maori, but sometimes convex.
To the north of Melanesia lie countless islands includ-
ing the Marianne, Caroline, Marshall, and Gilbert groups,
which together form the area known as Micronesia. The
population is extremely mixed, containing certain Mela-
36 Field Museum of NATUtiAL History
nesian, Polynesian, and Malaysian influences. The skin
color ranges from brown to nearly yellow, and the hair is
wavy or straight, but in the west some individuals are
very dark-skinned with frizzly hair, while others are light-
skinned with wavy or straight hair. The eyes are almost
black and the cheek-bones relatively prominent. In
stature the Micronesians are medium and are not so
robust as the Polynesians.
In the hall various representatives of the peoples of
Oceania are shown. Australia is represented by the full-
length figures of a man (No. 72), a woman and child
(No. 68), and the head of a woman (No. 66). The man
is shown in a characteristic pose with his primitive wooden
spear poised for throwing and a boomerang in his left
hand (Plate IX). On his body are deep scars made by
searing the flesh with knives. The Solomon Islander
(No. 60) in the act of climbing a date palm represents
the Melanesian group. Around his neck is a crescent-
shaped shell, and he wears a nose-ring.
Two men from Hawaii (Nos. 57 and 58) and the bust
of a Samoan (No. 59) are characteristic of the Polynesian
group. There is a full-length Hawaiian on his surf-board
as he speeds toward the beach. The Samoan, who holds
a large knife against his right shoulder, also displays the
wonderful physique of the Polynesian.
The exhibits in the hall are not yet completed. A
number of bronze busts and heads will be added from time
to time. Also, colored transparencies of racial types will
be installed, and a section at the east end of the hall
will be devoted to special scientific exhibits.
BRONZE STATUE OF AUSTRALIAN
ewV£RE;;r Of lUHUtt
Boas, F.— The Mind of Primitive Man. New York, 1911.
Anthropometry. New York, 1912.
Descendants of Immigrants. New York, 1912.
Anthropology and Modern Life. New York, 1928.
British Museum. — Guide to the Specimens Illustrating the Races
of Mankind in British Museum. London, 1921.
Buxton, L. H. D. — The Peoples of Asia. London, 1925.
Carr-Saunders, a. M. — The Population Problem. Oxford, 1922.
Deniker, J. — The Races of Man: an outline of anthropology and
ethnography. New York, 1906.
Haddon, a. C— The Study of Man. New York, 1898.
The Races of Man, and Their Distribution. Cambridge, 1924;
New York, 1925.
Herskovits, M. J. — Social Selection and the . Formation of Human
Types. Human Biology, I, 1929, pp. 250-262.
HooTON, E. A. — The Indians of Pecos Pueblo, a study of their
skeletal remains. New Haven, 1930.
Hrdlicka, a.— Physiological and Medical Observations among the
Indians of Southwestern United States and Northern Mexico.
Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 34, Washington, 1908.
Anthropometry. The Wistar Institute of Anatomy and
Biology, Philadelphia, 1920.
JOCHELSON, W. — Peoples of Asiatic Russia. American Museum of
Natural History, New York, 1928.
Kroeber, a. — Anthropology. New York, 1923.
Martin, R. — Lehrbuch der Anthropologie in systematischer Darstel-
lung. 3 vols., Jena, 1928.
Ripley, W. Z. — The Races of Europe, a sociological study, accom-
panied by a supplementary bibliography of the anthropology
and ethnology of Europe. London, 1900.
RiSLEY, Sir H. H.— The People of India. London, 1908.
Seligman, C. G. — Races of Africa. London, 1930.
Seligman, C. G. and Z. B.— The Veddas. Cambridge, 1911.
Sollas, W. J. — Ancient Hunters. London, 1915.
Stibbe, E. p. — An Introduction to Physical Anthropology. London,
Sullivan, L. R. — Essentials of Anthropometry. American Museum
of Natural History, New York, 1923.
Wallis, W. D.— Race and Culture. The Scientific Monthly, XXIII,
1926, pp. 313-321.
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A O C D
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OKNCRAl. PLAN Or HALL 3
PLAN OF HALL 3
LIST OF SCULPTURES BY MALVINA HOFFMAN
Unless stated otherwise the material is bronze. An asterisk
denotes life-size, full-length figures, the remainder are heads or busts.
*1. Bushman family, Kalahari Desert, South Africa.
2. Old Bushman, same locality.
3. Woman, Abyssinia (black marble).
4. Bushman woman, Kalahari Desert, South Africa.
*5. Negro dancing girl, Sara tribe, Lake Chad district. Age 15.
Stature 5 feet 7 inches.
6. Batwa boy with filed teeth, Belgian Congo.
7. Mangbetu woman, Belgian Congo, Central Africa.
8. Negro, Dahomey, West Africa.
*9. Shilluk warrior, Upper White Nile, East Africa. Age 25.
Stature 6 feet 8 inches.
10. Ubangi woman, French Equatorial Africa.
11. Woman, Sudan.
12. Somali, East Africa.
*13. Negro drummer, Senegal. Age 25. Stature 6 feet 1 inch.
14. Hamite, Abyssinia.
*16. Pygmy group, Ituri Forest, Belgian Congo.
17. Mediterranean, French type.
*18. Mediterranean type represented by fisherman from Sicily.
19. Anglo-Saxon, England.
20. Woman, Brittany, France.
*21. Nordic type.
22. Basque, northern Spain.
*23. Vedda, Ceylon. Age 28. Stature 5 feet 6 inches.
24. Arab, Kish, Iraq.
25. Rajput woman, India, belonging to a low caste
26. Singhalese, Kandy, Ceylon.
*27. Kashmiri in attitude of meditation, Gwalior, India. Age 25.
Stature 5 feet 9 inches.
28. Kashmiri, India.
29. Brahman, Benares, India. Age 35.
30. Woman (stone), Jaipur, India.
31. Bengali, India.
32. Bengali woman, India.
33. Afghan, Peshawar, India. Age 40.
*35. Tamil in the act of climbing a tree, India.
THE LIBRARY OF THI
40 Field Museum of Natural History Q F P W 1933
*36. Andaman Islander, India.
37. Eskimo woman, North America. UNIVERSITY OF ILLIN
38. Mongol, Outer Mongolia.
39. Eskimo, North America.
40. Cantonese woman, southern China. Age 35.
41. Chinese, type of scholar, central China.
42. Chinese woman (stone), type of scholar.
43. Chinese, type of scholar.
*44. Priest, Lhasa, Tibet, seated cross-legged. Age 51. Stature
5 feet 5 inches.
45. Woman, Lhasa, Tibet.
46. Chinese laborer.
47. Chinese (stone), Shanghai.
48. Manchu, Peiping, China.
*49. Chinese jinriksha coolie. North Chinese type. Age 30.
Stature 5 feet 3 inches.
50. Japanese woman. Age 24.
*52. Ainu, Island of Yezo (Hokkaido), northern Japan. Age 57.
Stature 5 feet 1 inch.
53. Young Ainu, same locality.
*55. Blackfoot Indian, United States. Age 28. Stature 6 feet.
56. Sioux Indian, United States.
V. OCEANIA AND AUSTRALIA
*57. Hawaiian riding on a surf-board, Polynesia. Age 21.
Stature 5 feet 10 inches.
58. Hawaiian, Polynesia.
59. Samoan, Polynesia.
*60. Solomon Islander climbing a tree, Melanesia.
61. Malay, Malay Peninsula.
62. Dyak, Borneo.
63. Sakai, Tupah, Malay Peninsula. Stature 4 feet 8 inches.
*64. Semang Pygmy, Johore, Malay Peninsula. Stature 4 feet
65. Jakun, Johore, Malay Peninsula. Age 40. Stature 5 feet
66. Australian woman.
67. Jakun woman, Johore, Malay Peninsula. Age 26. Stature
4 feet 10 inches.
*68. Australian mother and child.
69. Man, Java.
70. Woman, Bali.
71. Woman, Java.
*73. Group of cockfighters, Madura, Borneo, Java, Bali.
*74. Group symbolizing unity of mankind, consisting of three
statues representing a white, a black, and a yellow man.